After 60 Years, Archaeologists Find New Dead Sea Scrolls Cave !!!

Ever since Bedouin shepherds stumbled on the first fragments hidden in caves in the Judean desert back in the late 1940s, the Dead Sea Scrolls have ranked among the greatest archaeological finds of the past century. A collection of nearly 1,000 Hebrew, Greek and Aramaic manuscripts dating back to the fourth century B.C., the scrolls included the earliest surviving written fragments of the Hebrew Bible. Last week, an excavation led by Hebrew University and the Israel Antiquities Authority (IAA) announced the discovery of a new scroll-related cave at Qumran, in the West Bank—the 12th, to be exact, and the first to be successfully excavated in more than 60 years.

REVEALED: Antarctica is WARM and this mind-blowing evidence PROVES it !!!

ANTARCTICA has been a source of fascination for generations – but this mind-blowing footage could change our perception of the barren land for good.

What if the vast, virtually uninhabited continent wasn’t just snow and ice?

An incredible clip proves parts of the so-called coldest region on Earth are WARM.

The Bunger Hills range in Antarctica is a little-known oasis in an unforgiving, sub-zero landscape.

Named after Commander David E Bunger, the man who led a team of US Navy explorers to the breathtaking discovery in 1949, the region boasts “melt ponds” and unfrozen lakes.

Warm antarctica

EXPLOSIVE: Operation Highjump discovered parts of the unforgiving Antarctica are warm

And the reasoning behind the phenomenon still stumps scientists today.

Bunger’s discovery was part of Operation Highjump – a navy task force established to train personnel in adverse conditions, finding possible base sites, and carry out climate research.

The now little-known film The Secret Land – released in 1948 – documented the exploration and captured the dramatic moment Bunger and his team found Antarctica’s most unlikely secret.

Bunger Hills antarctica

WARM: Commander David E Bunger discovered what are now called the Bunger Hills

The crew were onboard a small aircraft when Bunger Hills suddenly appeared.

Narrator Commander Robert Montgomery excitedly describes the moment, telling the viewer: “Rugged mountain ranges as far as the eye can see.

“Bunger leans forward in amazement. His eyes have caught a sudden and unbelievable change in scenery.

“The universe so white has turned a chocolate brown, dotted with blue.

“A cameraman goes into action. Three hundreds square miles of land without snow. Land that might be in New Mexico or Arizona.

Warn Antarctica

EXPLORATION: The region was part of a documentary called The Secret Land released in 1948

“Three hundreds square miles of land without snow. Land that might be in New Mexico or Arizona”

Commander Robert Montgomery

“These pictures alone will prove Bunger has discovered a warm oasis in the shadow of the pole.

“It is for such supreme moments as this that men brave the hardships of exploration. The astounding un-dreamed of fact is they are over a chain of warm water lakes whose shores – except for patches – are free of ice and snow.”

Coal and “minerals of the utmost importance to civilisation” were discovered in the area, according to the film, while the water temperature of a five-mile long fresh water lake was recorded at 38F (3C).

The groundbreaking documentary was so impressive seven decades ago that it received the Academy Award for Best Documentary Feature.

Warm Antarctica

SURPRISE: Commander Bunger and his team had no idea they would come across the ‘oasis’

Warm antarctica

INCREDIBLE: The area boasts minerals of the “utmost importance to civilisation” Conspiracy theorists have long claimed Antarctica is hiding secrets hidden by the powers that be.

 

A theory emerged last year suggesting a massive civilisation exists beneath a mile of ice.

One vlogger was stunned after spotting what appeared to be a giant staircase-like structure on the continent.

Another conspiracy theory surrounds belief a Nazi UFO base is hidden beneath a huge ice shelf in Antarctica.

Dragons in History !!!

“The dragons of legend are strangely like actual creatures that have lived in the past. They are much like the great reptiles which inhabited the earth long before man is supposed to have appeared on earth. Dragons were generally evil and destructive. Every country had them in its mythology.” (Knox, Wilson, “Dragon,” The World Book Encyclopedia, vol. 5, 1973, p. 265.) The article on dragons in the Encyclopaedia Britannica (1949 edition) noted that dinosaurs were “astonishingly dragonlike,” even though its author assumed that those ancients who believed in dragons did so “without the slightest knowledge” of dinosaurs. The truth is that the fathers of modern paleontology used the terms “dinosaur” and “dragon” interchangeably for quite some time.

In his 1828 American Dictionary of the English Language Noah Webster sought out the derivation of the word dragon among the ancient Medieval roots. He concluded, “Hence I infer that the word originally signified a shooting meteor in the atmosphere, a fiery meteor, and hence a fiery or flying serpent, from a root which signified to shoot or draw out.” His first definition of the word dragon was “A kind of winged serpent, much celebrated in the romance of the middle ages.” (Webster, Daniel, An American Dictionary of the English Language, S. Converse, New York, 1828, p. 67.)

ivanlagoon dragonStories of dragons have been handed down for generations in many civilizations. No doubt many of these stories have been exaggerated through the years. But that does not mean they had no original basis in fact. Even some living lizards look like dragons and it is easy to see how a larger variety of such an animal could frighten a community. Have you ever seen an old dinosaur film where they used an iguana in a miniature town set to create the illusion of a great dragon?

In 2004 a fascinating dinosaur skull was donated to the Children’s Museum of Indianapolis by three Sioux City, Iowa, residents who found it during a trip to the Hell Creek Formation in South Dakota. The trio are still excavating the site, looking for more of the dinosaur’s bones. Because of its dragon-like head, horns and teeth, the new species was dubbed Dracorex hogwartsia. This name honors the Harry Potter fictional works, which features the Hogwarts School and recently popularized dragons. The dinosaur’s skull mixes spiky horns, bumps and a long muzzle. But unlike other members of the pachycephalosaur family, which have domed foreheads, this one is flat-headed. Consider some of the ancient stories of dragons, some fictional and some that might be authentic history of dinosaurs.

HumbabaWritten about 2,000 B.C. the famous Epic of Gilgamesh records the slaying of the monster Humbaba in Mesopotamia. Humbaba was the terrifying guardian of the Cedar Forest of Amanus. The powerful Mesopotamian god Enlil placed Humbaba there to kill any human that dared disturb its peace. Humbaba was a giant creature, terrifying to look at. Sometimes he is pictured as a large, humanoid shape covered with scale plates. His powerful legs were like that of a lion, but with the talons of a vulture. His head had bull’s horns and his tail was like a serpent. Alternatively, some sources give Humbaba the form of a dragon that could breathe fire. (Drawing to the right by Fafnirx.)

Daniel was said to kill a dragon in the apocryphal chapters of the Bible. King Cyrus challenged Daniel’s refusal to worship the idol Bel. Daniel revealed to the king a conspiracy on the part of the priests to eat the food offered to Bel, making the god seem real. Not only were the deceptive priests executed, but Daniel was allowed to destroy their idol and a dragon that was being worshipped. In the brief narrative of the dragon (14:23-30), Daniel killed the dragon by baking pitch, fat, and hair to make cakes that cause the dragon to burst open upon consumption. In the Hebrew Midrash version, other ingredients serve the purpose of destroying the dragon.

After Alexander the Great invaded India he brought back reports of seeing a great hissing dragon living in a cave. Later Greek rulers supposedly brought dragons alive from Ethiopia. (Gould, Charles, Mythical Monsters, W.H. Allen & Co., London, 1886, pp. 382-383.) Microsoft Encarta Encyclopedia (“Dinosaur” entry) explains that the historical references to dinosaur bones may extend as far back as the 5th century BC. In fact, some scholars think that the Greek historian Herodotus was referring to fossilized dinosaur skeletons and eggs when he described griffins guarding nests in central Asia. “Dragon bones” mentioned in a 3rd century AD text from China are thought to refer to bones of dinosaurs.

Josephus

Titus Flavius Josephus

Herodotus – “Father of History”

Ancient explorers and historians, like Josephus, told of small flying reptiles in ancient Egypt and Arabia and described their predators, the ibis, stopping their invasion into Egypt. (Epstein, Perle S., Monsters: Their Histories, Homes, and Habits, 1973, p.43.) A third century historian Gaius Solinus, discussed the Arabian flying serpents, and stated that “the poison is so quick that death follows before pain can be felt.” (Cobbin, Ingram, Condensed Commentary and Family Exposition on the Whole Bible, 1837, p. 171.) The well-respected Greek researcher Herodotus wrote: “There is a place in Arabia, situated very near the city of Buto, to which I went, on hearing of some winged serpents; and when I arrived there, I saw bones and spines of serpents, in such quantities as it would be impossible to describe. The form of the serpent is like that of the water-snake; but he has wings without feathers, and as like as possible to the wings of a bat.” (Herodotus, Historiae, tr. Henry Clay, 1850, pp. 75-76.) This is a remarkable description of a pterosaur! In his third volume Herodotus goes on to tell how these animals could sometimes be found in the Arabian spice groves. He describes their size, coloration, and reproduction.  It seems that venomous flying serpents were infamous for living in frankincense trees. When workers wanted to gather the tree’s incense, they would employ putrid smoke to drive the flying reptiles away. (Note the illustration below to the the left.) Herodotus has been called “the Father of History” because he was the first historian we know who collected his materials systematically and then tested them for accuracy. John Goertzen noted the Egyptian representation of tail vanes with flying reptiles and concluded that they must have observed pterosaurs or they would not have known to sketch this leaf-shaped tail. (Goertzen, J.C., “Shadows of Rhamphorhynchoid Pterosaurs in Ancient Egypt and Nubia,” Cryptozoology, Vol 13, 1998.)

Pterosaur in Frankincense Tree with Smoke SMALL

Original artwork by Blake Sanders

Wawel Cathedral Bones

wawel dragon

 

 

 

 

 

Above center is an image of the Wawel Dragon (erected during recent times). According to  legend this dragon lived in a large cave under Wawel Hill in the early 8th century. The cave (which is today a popular tourist attraction) is on the banks of the Vistula river in Kraków, Poland. Wawel Cathedral is a 900-year-old Catholic church in the town that still proudly displays (in a hanging bundle) the large bones which are rumored to have belonged to the local dragon. The oldest known account of the Wawel dragon story comes from the 12th century work by Wincenty Kadlubek. It tells how the lair of this oppressive reptile was located near what was then the capital of Poland. According to Polish folklore, the dragon was finally killed by a poor cobbler’s apprentice named Skuba, who cleverly offered the dragon a lamb stuffed with sulphur. Skuba was rewarded with the hand of the king’s daughter in marriage because of his act of deliverance.

Charles Gould cites the historian Gesner as saying that, “In 1543, a kind of dragon appeared near Styria, within the confines of Germany, which had feet like lizards, and wings after the fashion of a bat, with an incurable bite… He refers to a description by Scaliger (Scaliger, lib. III. Miscellaneous cap. i, “Winged Serpents,” p. 182.) of a species of serpent four feet long, and as thick as a man’s arm, with cartilaginous wings pendent from the sides.  He also mentions Brodeus, of a winged dragon which was brought to Francis, the invincible King of the Gauls, by a countryman who had killed it with a mattock near Sanctones, and which was stated to have been seen by many men of approved reputation, who though it had migrated from transmarine regions by the assistance of the wind. Cardan (De Natura Rerum, lib VII, cap. 29.) states that whilst he Aldrovandus' Winged Dragon of Ethiopia3resided in Paris he saw five winged dragons in the William Museum; these were biped, and possessed of wings so slender that it was hardly possible that they could fly with them. Cardan doubted their having been fabricated, since they had been sent in vessels at different times, and yet all presented the same remarkable form. Bellonius states that he had seen whole carcases [sic] of winged dragons, carefully prepared, which he considered to be of the same kind as those which fly out of Arabia into Egypt; they were thick about the belly, had two feet, and two wings, whole like those of a bat, and a snake’s tail.” (Gould, Charles, Mythical Monsters, W.H. Allen & Co., London, 1886, pp. 136-138.) The Italian historian Aldrovandus also claimed to have received in the year 1551 a “true dried Aethiopian dragon” a watercolor of which appears to the left. At first glance, one is tempted agree with Gould that the wings are ridiculously small. But perhaps in transporting from Ethiopia the wings broke off or disintegrated and thus had to be added from the artist’s imagination. The positioning of the wings and the legs is also wrong, unless the “legs” are actually the forelimbs (in which case the wings should be incorporated into the limb) and the legs are actually missing.

The first century Greek historian Strabo, who traveled and researched extensively throughout the Mediterranean and Near East, wrote a treatise on geography. He explained that in India “there are reptiles two cubits long with membranous wings like bats, and that they too fly by night, discharging drops of urine, or also of sweat, which putrefy the skin of anyone who is not on his guard;” (Strabo, Geography: Book XV: “On India,” Chap. 1, No. 37, AD 17, pp. 97-98.) Strabos account may have been based in part on the earlier work of Megasthenes (ca 350 – 290 BC) who traveled to India and states that there are “snakes (ophies) with wings, and that their visitations occur not during the daytime but by night, and that they emit urine which at once produces a festering wound on any body on which it may happen to drop.” (Aelianus, Greek Natural History:On Animals, 3rd century AD, 16.41.)

Dinosaur Egg vs Chicken EggThe Chinese have many stories of dragons. Books even tell of Chinese families raising dragons to use their blood for medicines and highly prizing their eggs. (DeVisser, Marinus Willem, The Dragon in China & Japan, 1969.) To the right is a pictures of a fossilized Chinese dinosaur egg compared to a chicken egg. Marco Polo wrote of his travels to the province of Karajan and reported on huge serpents, which at the fore part have two short legs, each with three claws. “The jaws are wide enough to swallow a man, the teeth are large and sharp, and their whole appearance is so formidable that neither man, nor any kind of animal can approach them without terror.” (Polo, Marco, The Travels of Marco Polo, 1961, pp. 158-159.) Marco Polo goes on to describe how the local citizens of the area hunted and killed these creatures. He noted that the reptiles were nocturnal (assisted by “eyes larger than a loaf”), dwelling in “caverns” during the day to avoid the heat. After they had killed their prey, Polo wrote that they would find a water source such as a lake, spring, or river. Their massive bodies left “deep impressions” in the paths “as if a heavy beam had been drawn along the sands.” Since the creatures predictably followed these same rutted paths, the natives buried large “wooden stakes tipped with sharp iron spikes, which they cover with sand” (p. 159). Apparently these spikes so severely wounded the creatures that they died soon thereafter. Two-legged dragons are portrayed in ancient Chinese art, like the white carved jade dragon (above right) that is part of the Genesis Park collection. They are also known from other cultures (see below). Some of the Chinese dragon art is remarkably like dinosaurs, though often the dragons display an unrealistically narrow trunk…more serpent-like.

Bronze Dragon Tang Dynasty Red & GoldMing Dynasty Terracotta Sculpture1 - 368 to 1644 ADzodiac

It is interesting that the twelve signs of the Chinese zodiac are all animals–eleven of which are still alive today. But is the twelfth, the dragon merely a legend or is it based on a real animal– the dinosaur? It doesn’t seem logical that the ancient Chinese, when constructing their zodiac, would include one mythical animal with eleven real animals. “The interpretation of dinosaurs as dragons goes back more than two thousand years in Chinese culture. They were regarded as sacred, as a symbol of power…” (Zhiming, Doug, Dinosaurs from China, 1988, p. 9.) Shown to the top left is a dragon (click to enlarge) that was cast in red gold and embossed during the Tang Dynasty (618-906 AD). Notice the long neck and tail, the frills, and the lithe stance. Shown above in the middle is a ferocious Ming Dynasty (1368-Chinese Shell Dragon of Xishuipo2 cropped1644 AD) dragon statue that is part of the Barakat Gallery Collection. China’s oldest known dragon depiction is a curious discovery found at the ancient Xishuipo Cemetery Ruins along the Yellow River in Henan Province (see right). There, three artistic dragons (along with tigers and other animals) composed entirely of white shells were placed alongside human remains. No doubt this indicates a burial place of some very important ruler from the beginnings of the Chinese culture. The Xishuipo site dates back several thousand years, yet the dragons shown are surprisingly like modern renditions. This shows the dragon concept did not slowly develop through Chinese history from a simplistic, primitive mythological figure. This would make sense if they were, in fact, modeled after living creatures.

“Among Serpents, we find some that are furnished with Wings. Herodotus who saw those Serpents, says they had great Resemblance to those which the Greeks and Latins call’d Hydra; their Wings are not compos’d of Feathers like the Wings of Birds, but rather like to those of Batts; they love sweet smells, and frequent such Trees as bear Spices. These were the fiery Serpents that made so great a Destruction in the Camp of Israel…The brazen Serpent was a Figure of the flying Serpent, Saraph, which Moses fixed upon an erected Pole: That there were such, is most evident. Herodotus who had seen of those Serpents, says they very much resembled those which the Greeks and Latins called Hydra: He went on purpose to the City of Brutus to see those flying Animals, that had been devour’d by the Ibidian Birds.” (Owen, Charles, An Essay Towards a Natural History of Serpents, 1742, pp. 191-193.)

Hans_Egede_1734_sea_serpentDuring the Medieval period, the Scandinavians described swimming dragons and the Vikings placed dragons on the front of their ships to scare off the sea monsters. The one pictured to the left is based upon the 1734 sighting by Hans Egede. As a missionary to Greenland, Egede was known as a meticulous recorder of the natural world. Numerous such stories have been recorded from the age of sailing ships (1500-1900 A.D.). The familiar legend of Saint George slaying a dragon is prolific throughout European art and history. Likely it have some basis in fact. St. George is the patron saint of England (though the actual story was brought from the east by the Crusaders). Indeed the “dragon” pictured to the right is the dinosaur Baryonyx, whose skeleton has been found throughout Europe.

beowulf dies killing the winged dragonFamous in the annals of British literature is the poem of Beowulf, the heroic Norse warrior who killed a number of dragons. In the end he died in the process of vanquishing a winged dragon. Dragons were even described in reputable zoological treatises published during the Middle Ages. For example, the great Swiss naturalist and medical doctor Konrad Gesner published a four-volume encyclopedia from 1516-1565 entitled Historiae Animalium. He mentioned dragons as “very rare but still living creatures” (p.224). The story is told of a tenth century Irishman who encountered a large clawed beast having “iron on its tail which pointed backwards.” It had a head similar to a horse. It also had thick legs and strong claws. Could this have been a surviving Stegosaurus? (Ham, K., The Great Dinosaur Mystery Solved, 1999, p.33.)

Aldrovandi Dragon WatercolorUlysses Aldrovandus is considered by many to be the father of modern natural history. He traveled extensively, collected thousands of animals and plants, and created the first ever natural history museum.  His impressive collections are still on display at the Bologna University (the world’s oldest university) where they attest to his scholarship. His credentials give credence to an incident that Aldrovandus personally reported concerning a dragon. The dragon was first seen on May 13, 1572, hissing like a snake. It had been hiding on the small estate of Master Petronius. At 5:00 PM, the dragon was caught on a public roadway by a herdsman named Baptista, near the hedge of a private farm, a mile from the remote city outskirts of Bologna. Baptista was following his ox cart home when he noticed the oxen suddenly come to a stop. He kicked them and shouted at them, but they refused to move and went down on their knees rather than move forward. At this point, the herdsman noticed a hissing sound and was startled to see this strange little dragon ahead of him.Trembling he struck it on the head with his rod and killed it. (Aldrovandus, Ulysses, The Natural History of Serpents and Dragons, 1640, p.402.) Aldrovandus surmised that dragon was a juvenile, judging by the incompletely developed claws and teeth.The corpse had only two feet and moved both by slithering like a snake and by using its feet, he believed. (There are small two-legged lizards that do this today. See below left.) Aldrovandus mounted the specimen and displayed it for some time. He also had a watercolor painting of the creature made (see upper right). Perhaps these two-legged, snake-like dragons had been known for some time in Medieval Europe. A 13th century statue of Eve and the Serpent displayed at Reims Cathedral in Palais du Tau (below right) displays the same two-legged dragon motif. It is interesting to note that two-legged dragons have also been depicted in the ancient Acambaro art found in Mexico (see middle below) and Chinese art (see the Marco Polo dragon report above).

In Medieval times, scientifically minded authors produced volumes called “bestiaries,” a compilation of known (and sometimes imaginary) animals accompanied by a moralizing explanation and fascinating pictures. One such volume is the Aberdeen Bestiary, written in the early 1500s and preserved in the library of Henry VIII. Along with the newt, the salamander, and various kinds of snakes is the description and depiction of the dragon: “The dragon is bigger than all other snakes or all other living things on earth. For this reason, the Greeks call it dracon, from this is derived its Latin name draco. The dragon, it is said, is often drawn forth from caves into the open air, causing the air to become turbulent. The dragon has a crest, a small mouth, and narrow blow-holes through which it breathes and puts forth its tongue. Its strength lies not in its teeth but in its tail, and it kills with a blow rather than a bite. It is free from poison. They say that it does not need poison to kill things, because it kills anything around which it wraps its tail. From the dragon not even the elephant, with its huge size, is safe. For lurking on paths along which elephants are accustomed to pass, the dragon knots its tail around their legs and kills them by suffocation. Dragons are born in Ethiopia and India, where it is hot all year round.” Flavious Philostratus, the third century historian provided this sober account: “The whole of India is girt with dragons of enormous size; for not only the marshes are full of them, but the mountains as well, and there is not a single ridge without one. Now the marsh kind are sluggish in their habits and are thirty cubits long, and they have no crest standing up on their heads.” (Philostratus, Flavius, The Life of Apollonius of Tyanna, 170 AD.) Pliny the Elder also referenced large dragons in India in his Natural History.

The 16th century Italian explorer Pigafetta, in a report of the kingdom of Congo, described the province of Bemba, which he defines as “on the sea coast from the river Ambrize, until the river Coanza towards the south,” and says of serpents, “There are also certain other creatures which, being as big as rams, have wings like dragons, with long tails, and long chaps, and divers rows of teeth, and feed upon raw flesh.  Their colour is blue and green, their skin painted like scales, and they have two feet but no more. The Pagan negroes used to worship them as gods, and to this day you may see divers of them that are kept for a marvel.  And because they are very rare, the chief lords there curiously preserve them, and suffer the people to worship them, which tendeth greatly to their profits by reason of the gifts and oblations which the people offer unto them.” (Pigafetta, Filippo, The Harleian Collections of Travels, vol. ii, 1745, p. 457.)

John of Damascus DragonSt. John of Damascus, an eastern monk who wrote in the 8th century, gives a sober account of dragons, insisting that they are mere reptiles and did not have magical powers. He quotes from the Roman historian Dio who chronicled the Roman empire in the second century. It seems Regulus, a Roman consul, fought against Carthage, when a dragon suddenly crept up and settled behind the wall of the Roman army. The Romans killed it, skinned it and sent the hide to the Roman Senate. Dio claimed the hide was measured by order of the senate and found to be one hundred and twenty feet long. It seems unlikely that either Dio or the pious St. John would support an outright fabrication involving a Roman consul and the Senate.

The Anglo Saxon Chronicle gives a dire entry for the year 793.  (In those days it was common to take glowing, flying dragon activity as an omen of evil to come.) This year came dreadful fore-warnings over the land of the Northumbrians, terrifying the people most woefully: these were immense sheets of light rushing through the air, and whirlwinds, and fiery, dragons flying across the firmament.” Reliable witness reports of “flying dragons” (pterosaur-like creatures) in Europe are recorded around 1649. (Thorpe, B. Ed., The Anglo Saxon Chronicle, 1861, p.48.) This remarkable book also describes an encounter with a dragon in 1405: “Close to the town of Bures, near Sudbury, there has lately appeared, to the great hurt of the countryside, a dragon, vast in body, with a crested head, teeth like a saw, and a tail extending to an enormous length. Having slaughtered the shepherd of the flock, it devoured many sheep….In order to destroy him, all the country people around were summoned. But when the dragon saw that he was again to be assailed with arrows, he fled into a marsh or mere and there hid himself among the long reeds, and was no more seen” (p. 60).

Penllyn Castle in Wales

The Welsh have numerous historical accounts of flying serpents. “The woods around Penllyn Castle, Glamorgan, had the reputation of being frequented by winged serpents, and these were the terror of old and young alike. An aged inhabitant of Penllyn, who died a few years ago, said that in his boyhood the winged serpents were described as very beautiful. They were coiled when in repose, and “looked as if they were covered with jewels of all sorts. Some of them had crests sparkling with all the colours of the rainbow.” When disturbed they glided swiftly, “sparkling all over,” to their hiding places. When angry, they “flew over people’s heads, with outspread wings, bright, and sometimes with eyes too, like the feathers in a peacock’s tail”. He said it was “no old story invented to frighten children”, but a real fact. His father and uncle had killed some of them, for they were as bad as foxes for poultry. The old man attributed the extinction of the winged serpents to the fact that they were “terrors in the farmyards and coverts.” (Trevelyan, Marie, 1909, Folk-Lore and Folk Stories of Wales, p. 168-169.)

We still have a couple of examples of Medieval dragon booklets, like The Dragon Story shown to the right and Strange News out of Essex or The Winged Serpent. The prolific 17th century writer Athanasius Kircher’s recorded how the noble man, Christopher Schorerum, prefect of the entire territory, “wrote a true history summarizing there all, for by that way, he was able to confirm the truth of the things experienced, and indeed the things truly seen by the eye, written in his own words: ‘On a warm night in 1619, while contemplating the serenity of the heavens, I saw a shining dragon of great size in front of Mt. Pilatus, coming from the opposite side of the lake [or ‘hollow’], a cave that is named Flue [Hogarth-near Lucerne] moving rapidly in an agitated way, seen flying across; It was of a large Mount Pilatus Dragon by Kirchersize, with a long tail, a long neck, a reptile’s head, and ferocious gaping jaws. As it flew it was like iron struck in a forge when pressed together that scatters sparks. At first I thought it was a meteor from what I saw. But after I diligently observed it alone, I understood it was indeed a dragon from the motion of the limbs of the entire body.’ From the writings of a respected clergyman, in fact a dragon truely exists in nature it is amply established.” (Kircher, Athanasius, Mundus Subterraneus, 1664, tr. by Hogarth, “Dragons,” 1979, pp. 179-180.) Such bioluminescent nocturnal flying creatures are known in some regions still today. (See the Ropen page.) Might they not be the basis for the “fiery dragon” lore from ancient civilizations around the world?

John Harris was a scientific man that edited the first encyclopedia. He gives a singularly account of the capture of a dragon: “We have, in an ancient author, a very large and circumstantial account of the taking of a dragon on the frontiers of Ethiopia, which was one and twenty feet in length, and was carried to Ptolemy Philadelphus, who every bountifully rewarded such as ran the hazard of procuring him this beast.” (Harris, John, Collection of Voyages, vol. i, London, 1764, p. 474.) But this pales in comparison to  the account St. Ambrose gives of dragons “seen in the neighbourhood of the Ganges nearly seventy cubits in length.” (Ambrose, De Moribus Brachmanorum, 1668.) It was one of this size that Alexander and his army saw in a cave. “Its terrible hissing made a strong impression on the Macedonians, who, with all their courage, could not help being frighted at so horrid a spectacle.” (Aelian, De Animal, lib. XV, cap. 21.)

Map Here be DragonsAs western pioneers colonized tribal lands around the world, reports of dragons continued to come back to Europe. It became standard practice for cartographers to identify the unexplored regions at the periphery of their maps with the cryptic words: “Here be dragons!” But as civilization took hold even in remote regions, the changes to the ecosystem and hunting down of predators took its toll on the remaining dinosaurian remnants.

Author Charles Gould sought to dispel supernatural notions and give a sober account of the dragon. “The dragon is nothing more than a serpent of enormous size; and they formerly distinguished three sorts of them in the Indies. Viz. such as were in the mountains, such as were bred in the caves or in the flat country, and such as were found in fens and marshes. The first is the largest of all, and are covered with scales as resplendent as polished gold.  These have a kind of beard hanging from their lower jaw, their eyebrows large, and very exactly arched; their aspect the most frightful that can be imagined, and their cry loud and shrill… their crests of a bright yellow, and a protuberance on their heads of the colour of a burning coal. Those of the flat country differ from the former in nothing but in having their scales of a silver colour, and in their frequenting rivers, to which the former never come. Those that live in marshes and fens are of a dark colour, approaching to a black, move slowly, have no crest, or any rising upon their heads.” (Gould, Charles, Mythical Monsters, W.H. Allen & Co., London, 1886, p. 140.)

The seventeenth century Bible scholar Samuel Bochart penned an in-depth study of the animals in the Bible. He describes how winged serpents are not only a thing of the Old Testament but were still alive in his day: “If on your travels you encounter the serpent with wings who circles and hurls himself at you, the flying snake, hide yourself because of its reputation. Lie down when the snake appears and guard yourself in alarm for that snake’s manner is to go away calm, considering it a victory… There are winged and flying serpents that can be found who are venomous, who snort, and are savage and kill with pain worse than fire…” (Bochart, Samuel, Hierozoicon: sive De animalibus S. Scripturae, Vol. 2, 1794.)

Tombstone Epitaph Cowboys & Pterosaur

On April 26, 1890 the Tombstone Epitaph (a local Arizona newspaper) reported that two cowboys had discovered and shot down a creature – described as a “winged dragon” – which resembled a pterodactyl, only MUCH larger. The cowboys said its wingspan was 160 feet, and that its body was more than four feet wide and 92 feet long. The cowboys supposedly cut off the end of the wing to prove the existence of the creature. The paper’s description of the animal fits the Quetzelcoatlus, whose fossils were found in Texas. (Gish, Dinosaurs by Design, 1992, p. 16.) Could this be thunderbird or Wakinyan, the jagged-winged, fierce-toothed flying creature of Sioux American Indian legend? This thunderbird supposedly lived in a cave on the top of the Olympic Mountains and feasted on seafood. Different from the eagle (Wanbli) or hawk (Cetan) the Wakinyan was said to be huge, carrying off children, and was named because of its association with thunder and lightning–supposedly being struck by lightning and seen to fall to the ground during a storm. (Geis, Darlene, Dinosaurs & Other Prehistoric Animals, 1959, p. 9.) It was further distinguished by its piercing cry and thunderous beating wings (Lame Deer’s 1969 interview).

Evolutionary Zoologist Desmond Morris wrote, “In the world of fantastic animals, the dragon is unique. No other imaginary creature has appeared in such a rich variety of forms. It is as though there was once a whole family of different dragon species that really existed, before they mysteriously became extinct. Indeed, as recently as the seventeenth century, scholars wrote of dragons as though they were scientific fact, their anatomy and natural history being recorded in painstaking detail. The naturalist Edward Topsell, for instance, writing in 1608, considered them to be reptilian and closely related to serpents: ‘There are divers sorts of Dragons, distinguished partlie by their Countries, partlie by their quantitie and magnitude, and partlie by the different forme of their externall partes.’ Unlike Shakespeare, who spoke of ‘the dragon more feared than seen,’ Topsell was convinced that they had been observed by many people: ‘Neither have we in Europe only heard of Dragons and never seen them, but also in our own country there have (by the testimony of sundry writers) divers been discovered and killed.’” (from the forward to Dr. Karl Shuker’s Dragons: A Natural History, 1995, p.8.)

Evolutionist Adrienne Mayor spent considerable time researching the possibility that Native Americans dug up dinosaur fossils. But some of the reports she received make a lot more sense if these early Americans interacted with actual dinosaurs, not yet extinct. There is no evidence for sophisticated Ancient Paleontologists. An old Assiniboine story tells of a war party that “traveled a long distance to unfamiliar lands and [saw] some large lizards. The warriors held a council and discussed what they knew about those Assiniboine Warriorstrange creatures. They decided that those big lizards were bad medicine and should be left alone. However, one warrior who wanted more war honors said that he was not afraid of those animals and would kill one. He took his lance [a very old weapon used before horses] and charged one of the large lizard type animals and tried to kill it. But he had trouble sticking his lance in the creature’s hide and during the battle he himself was killed and eaten.” (Mayor, Fossil Legends of the First Americans, 2005, p. 294.) This story conjures up credible visions of the scaly hide of a great reptile, something Native Americans would not know from mere skeletons. It was once thought that Woolly Mammoths had flourished in North America prior to the arrival of humans. But the discovery of sites where many mammoths were killed and butchered has established the co-existence of men and mammoths. Perhaps similar evidence involving dinosaurs will be forthcoming.

The atheistic astronomer Carl Sagan once remarked: “The pervasiveness of dragon myths in the folk legends of many cultures is probably no accident” (Sagan, Carl, The Dragons of Eden, New York: Random House, 1977, p. 149). Indeed he felt compelled to address the similarity to the great reptiles of the Jurassic era and “explain them away.” How could Sagan do this? Peter Dickinson stated, “Carl Sagan tried to account for the spread and consistency of dragon legends by saying that they are fossil memories of the time of the dinosaurs, come down to us through a general mammalian memory inherited from the early mammals, our ancestors, who had to compete with the great predatory lizards.” (Dickinson, Peter, The Flight of Dragons, New York: Harper and Row, 1979, p. 127). Thus Carl Sagan believed that we evolved not merely our physical bodies, but also memories “uploaded” from our mammalian ancestors!

After 60 Years, Archaeologists Find New Dead Sea Scrolls Cave !!!

Ever since Bedouin shepherds stumbled on the first fragments hidden in caves in the Judean desert back in the late 1940s, the Dead Sea Scrolls have ranked among the greatest archaeological finds of the past century. A collection of nearly 1,000 Hebrew, Greek and Aramaic manuscripts dating back to the fourth century B.C., the scrolls included the earliest surviving written fragments of the Hebrew Bible. Last week, an excavation led by Hebrew University and the Israel Antiquities Authority (IAA) announced the discovery of a new scroll-related cave at Qumran, in the West Bank—the 12th, to be exact, and the first to be successfully excavated in more than 60 years.

15 Most Shocking Things Found In The Deepest Parts Of The Ocean

15. The Ice Finger of Death!

via: ripleys.com

As far as the names given to the species, objects, and phenomena on this list, “The Ice Finger of Death” is number one. And it looks super cool, too. And when first discovered, scientists were taken aback, unsure of what it was. What the Ice Finger of Death actually is, is a brinicle. What? Still not clear? You see, the ocean covers some pretty cold places, like the Arctic and Antarctic. But ocean water doesn’t freeze like tap water in the freezer. The thicker, saltier components –the brine– swirl together and form a cone, like an icicle. Hence, brinicle. Because the brinicle is significantly colder than the rest of the water around it, it can be very dangerous and even deadly to nearby sea life, such as sea urchins and starfish.

14. The Titanic

via: pinterest.com

The RMS Titanic is perhaps the least mysterious item on this list. Conversely, however, it is probably the most famous. And its discovery was very important. It’s difficult to remember now, back before James Cameron’s film, when the Titanic was still a well-known ship and famous true story of how the hubris of man can lead to disaster, but was not fully understood. The “largest ship afloat” at the time of its departure from Southampton on its maiden voyage, the Titanic hit an iceberg on April 14, 1912, about 375 miles south of Newfoundland. But just how she sank was unclear. It wasn’t until her discovery in 1985 that we learned that it definitely sank in two pieces. This allowed us to learn more about how big ocean liners sink and also filled in some of the details of the story of the Titanic herself.

13. The Frilled Shark

via:SlideShare

If you think giraffes, dung beetles and platypuses are weird, wait until you get a look at some of our friends in the deep, dark ocean (Ok, platypuses are still really weird, regardless). The frilled shark is just one of the plethora of bizarre creatures that call the oceans home. Living as far down as 5,000 feet below the surface of the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, frilled sharks are what’s known as a “living fossil”. A living fossil is a species of animal that resembles species otherwise known only from the fossil record. Which is to say, all its closest relatives have long been extinct and it alone remains (the frilled shark only has one other extant member of its genus). The frilled shark is about two meters long, looks a bit like an eel, eats like a snake, and has a gestation period that may be as long as three-and-half years, which would make it the longest of any vertebrate. Yeah, it’s odd.

12. The Millennium Falcon???

via: dailymail.com

Ok, hear me out: this object at the bottom of the Baltic Sea probably isn’t the Millennium Falcon, but, I mean, it could be. It looks kind of like it. We can’t say it’s definitely not the Millennium Falcon, because we really don’t have any idea of what it actually is. Formally known as, “The Baltic Sea Anomaly”, it was discovered in June 2011 by the Swedish “Ocean X” diving team. It consists of a circular rock formation that looks like a pearl necklace which rests upon a pillar of some kind and contains what looks like a staircase descending to a dark hole. Suggestions of what it could be include: a World War II anti-submarine device, a gun turret from a battleship, or a flying saucer. Geologists, however, have stated that it is most likely a natural rock formation. Ho hum.

11. Underwater “Crop Circles”

via:presa.ge

Crop circles are formations, often circular, that are made by depressing parts of a growing crop, usually cereals. Some claim they are caused by extraterrestrials, but most are known to have been caused by humans and the rest are consistent with human causation. But, when diver Yuji Ookata discovered “underwater crop circles”, he was quite puzzled. Like those on land, the underwater variety also has nothing to do with aliens. But, its cause is much more interesting. The Japanese puffer fish is less than five inches long but it can create wonderful and ornate “nests” out of sand that are six-and-a-half feet wide. Why does the puffer fish create this beautiful sandcastle? The same reason males create anything: to attract females. If a female is sufficiently impressed, she will lay her eggs in the nest, then the male will fertilize and look after them until they hatch about six days later. The male then goes off and makes another nest. Scientists are still not sure what the females are looking for in these nests. But then, scientists have always had difficulty ascertaining what females want.

via:Kanal D

If you were going to arrange a beauty contest for fish in the ocean, you’d be hard pressed to find eligible contestants. However, if you were to hold an, “Ugliest Fish in the Sea” contest, you’d have no shortage of potential winners. And the Pacific Viperfish might just have what it takes to nab that crown. With jagged, needle-like teeth that are so large it can’t even close its mouth, the Pacific Viperfish is not going be in any Maybelline commercials anytime soon. They swim about in depths as low as 13,000 feet below the ocean’s surface. They’re about eight inches long and they have bioluminescent photophores they use to attract prey. They feed mostly on crustaceans and smaller fish. There’s no nice way of putting it; this fish is ugly.

9. The Chicxulub Crater

via: sciencemag.org

When geophysicists Antonio Camargo and Glen Penfield discovered the Chicxulub Crater off the coast of the Yucatán Peninsula in 1978, they weren’t sure what they had found. And it would be a while until they really knew. Not until 1990 when working with Alan Hildebrand, did they finally uncover sufficient evidence to conclude that the Chicxulub Crater was indeed an impact crater. And what caused the impact? A giant asteroid or comet had plunged into the Earth. And when did this happen? Around 66 million years ago; right around the time of the Cretaceous-Paleogene extinction event, which saw the extinction of 75% of all plant and animal life on Earth. This was the mass extinction that saw off the awesome dinosaurs (save for our feathered friends, the birds, of course). Before the discovery of the Chicxulub Crater, we didn’t know what happened to the dinosaurs. Now we do.

8. Underwater Pyramid

via: messagetoeagle.com

There have been several “underwater pyramids” discovered. They cause a lot of hubbub upon discovery, but most are determined to be natural formations by geologists. They still look cool, though. However, in 2013 Diocleciano Silva was sailing his yacht through the Azores Islands when his GPS discovered something. The object had a perfectly square base, appeared to be about 60 meters tall, and was oriented by the four cardinal directions (north, south, etc). What was it? Well, we don’t know. The Portuguese Navy had been reported to be investigating the object. If they did investigate, they either found nothing or something so amazing they can’t tell anybody yet. Most people claim a hoax, but some say this pyramid is part of a growing body of evidence that Azores were inhabited before the Portuguese arrived; perhaps as much as tens of thousands of years before. And some even say that this underwater pyramid is evidence that we have found (wait for it) the lost city of Atlantis! Or it could just be a big lie, who knows.

7. Vampire Squid

via:plus.google.com

Are there two creepier words you can smush together other than “vampire” and “squid”? In fact it gets worse, this species’ Latin name is “Vampyroteuthis infernalis” which literally translates to “vampire squid of Hell”. But actually, this little guy isn’t so bad. The Vampiric and hellish name come from its webbed arms that it can draw over itself like a Vampire’s cloak, as well as its crimson colored skin. The vampire squid is about 30 centimeters long and lives at around 10,000 feet below the surface. The vampire squid could also be called a “living fossil” as it is the only living member of its order. The vampire squid is specially adapted to living among low levels of oxygen and has the largest eyes proportionate to its body of any creature on Earth.

6. Bimini Road

via:Tribo Gamer

On September 2, 1968, J. Manson Valentine, Jacques Mayol, and Robert Angove were diving off the northwest coast of North Bimini Island in the Bahamas. It was then and there that they discovered something. A linear series of roughly rectangular limestone rocks leading in a northwest-southeast direction for about a kilometer. This formation would become known as “Bimini Road” or the “Bimini Wall”. In 1978, radiocarbon dating found the rocks to be about 3,500 years old, but this claim is disputed by some. Most of those who dispute that age are proponents of the “man made theory”; which is to say, they think that Bimini Road was intentionally built by humans. Why would humans do this? Everybody has a theory, and again, some involve Atlantis. But by far, the most credible argument is that Bimini Road is a naturally occurring rock formation. Either way, it’s still pretty cool.

5. Undersea Rivers

via:WebChutney

We all know what a sea is. We all know what a river is. But an undersea river? With rapids? And waterfalls? What??? Ok, calm down, it’s not black magic. But it is in the Black Sea. At least one of them is; the largest one to be directly observed by drones or divers. The Black Sea undersea river is 37 miles long, up 115 feet deep, and 0.6 miles wide. Were it on the surface, it would be the sixth largest river on Earth. But there are more, including one possible undersea river flowing out of the Amazon basin that could be bigger and another one in Mexico, the Cenote Angelita, that even has trees growing around it. Underwater! So how does this work? Well, the river water is much denser than the surrounding water because it has a higher salinity. As such, it sinks down to the lowest point and often carves out rivers on its way to a salty basin on the seabed.

4. The Lost City of Lord Krishna?

via:Plazilla

There are several sunken cities in the world. There’s one off the coast of Egypt that dates back to the time of Cleopatra, another in China that is truly magnificent (it was only flooded a few decades ago when the Chinese government created a damn), and the infamous city of vice, Port Royal, off the Jamaican coast. But none are as old as the sunken city the Gulf of Khambhat, near the modern city of Dwarka. It was discovered in 2000 by the National Institute of Ocean Archaeology. The remains are known as “the Lost City of Dwarka”, the “Lost City of Lord Krishna” (a famous city in Hindu texts), and formally as “the Gulf of Khambhat Cultural Complex”. Material from the sunken city has been dated back an astonishing 9,000 years. Even if that’s correct, it doesn’t necessarily mean the city is that old. But it could be, which would completely rearrange our understanding about the birth of human civilization, which occurred around 4,500 years ago according to our current understanding.

3. The Coelacanth

via:LiveInternet

Like other species mentioned on this list, the coelacanth is a living fossil. But more than that, it’s perhaps the most famous living fossil. It was discovered in 1938 by Marjorie Courtenay-Latimer, who thankfully spotted it among the catch of a local angler off the east coast of South Africa. The term “Coelacanth” refers to two extant species in the genus Latimeria. Not only are coelacanths living fossils, but they are also a Lazarus taxon; an evolutionary line that was thought extinct. They were thought to have become extinct around 66 million years ago during the Cretaceous-Paleogene extinction event. Coelacanths belong to the Sarcopterygii lineage, a line that not only includes lobe-finned fish but all tetrapods. This means the coelacanth is more closely related to lungfish, reptiles, and yes, even mammals than it is to common ray-finned fish (which constitute the vast majority of fish in the sea). This funny looking fish is actually a living example of the point where our ancestors broke off the evolutionary path from other fish. Sadly, the coelacanth is endangered; it has survived for 400 million years but we humans might finally kill it with our carelessness.

2. The Colossal Squid

via:Unique Hunters

You might be familiar with the Kraken: a terrifying sea creature from Norse mythology. It is now perhaps more famous as a meme (“Release the Kraken!”) or a bottle of rum. But if a Kraken ever did exist in the oceans, this is it. The colossal squid earns its name. We still don’t know a great deal about the creature as only a few specimens have ever been examined. However, going by what we’ve found, a fully mature adult colossal squid is about 39-46 feet long and weighs as much as 1,650 lbs, making it the largest invertebrate on earth. Colossal squids are very rare finds because they live at depths in the Southern Ocean (the waters around Antarctica) to which humans cannot go. The first full specimen was recovered in 1981 but the next was not caught until 2003. The largest ever was caught in 2007, but it’s unclear whether any of these specimens were fully grown, so they could be even bigger. The colossal squid has the largest eyeball on earth and unlike the giant squid, it has sharp hooks on every limb.

1. Loki’s Castle

via:Phys.org

Continuing with the Norse theme we have Loki’s Castle: a field of five active hydrothermal vents at the bottom of the Atlantic Ocean between Greenland and Norway. Hydrothermal vents are openings along the ocean floor where water that has been heated up by the interior of the earth jets out into the ocean. The water that issues forth can be as hot as 300 degrees Celsius (570 degrees Fahrenheit). Now, you’d think that nothing could survive in a place so dark and so hot. Think again. Tiny organisms known as thermophiles thrive in these extremely hot environments. And then there are slightly larger organisms that feed on them and those that feed on them and so on and so on. Collectively, these organisms are known as “extremophiles” as they can exist in the harshest environments we can imagine. This bodes well for the search for life beyond our planet, because they prove that wherever we have found liquid water, we have found life. But let’s try to take better care of our oceans before we go looking for another planet to live. There’s just so much cool stuff down there.

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